Muhammadiyah was founded by Muhammad Darwis, later known as K.H. Ahmad Dahlan, in Kauman Village, Yogyakarta on 8 Dhu Al Hijja 1330 AH or 18 November 1912 CE.
He used to be a royal servant in Yogyakarta Sultanate Royal Palace in charge of being a preacher, and he also worked as a trader. Seeing Muslims perform mystical activities drove him to invite them to return to Islamic teachings in accordance with Al-Qur’an and as-sunnah. He commenced it by providing religious understanding at his house.
People firstly declined his teachings, but he was ultimately welcomed by his family and closed friends due to his patience and persistence. His profession as a trader enabled his thoughts to spread quickly outside Kauman, in Java, and outside Java. To organized it, then, he established Muhammadiyah, and now this movement exists throughout Indonesia.
Besides teaching men, he conducted a preaching forum, Sidratul Muntaha, for women. He taught boys and girls in the afternoon and adults in the evening.
K.H. Ahmad Dahlan led Muhammadiyah in 1912-1922 implementing an annual meeting. In the 11th meeting, K.H. Ibrahim was assigned as the president of Muhammadiyah. He was at his position until 1934. The annual meeting turned into an annual congress in 1936, a triennial meeting and now a Muhammadiyah congress conducted once five years.